from the History Memory

- Khalid bin Al-Walid arrived in Najaf city in the year 12 A.H. after conquering Al-Yamamah. He also intended to conquer Al-Hirah but the inhabitants sought refuge from him in the White Palace, and already the Al-Buyab incident has occurred there. 
- Sabur Zul Aktaf dug a trench around the city in the western part of Najaf for fearing from Arabs. This trench is still clear between Al-Hirah and Karbala. 
- In year 14 A.H. Najaf was a battlefield in which Moslems and Persians exchanged attacks between them. Thus, the first poll-tax in Islam was taken from the Persians in Banqia area. Banqia is one of the names of this area. 
- Al-Khabab bin Al-Arat was the first person to be buried in Najaf in year 37 A.H. and Imam Ali (peace be upon him) prayed on his dead body and asked blessing for him. 
- Imam Ali (peace be upon) achieved martyrdom in the year 40 A.H. / 661 A.D. affected with his wounds in Al-Kufah mosque by the stroke and cursed Abdul Rahman bin Muljam Al-Muradi. Then he was entombed in Najaf by two Imams Al-Hasan and Al-Husain and also his family (peace be upon all of them) in accordance to his testament. 
ـ The first water flowed after Islam in Najaf in year 250 A.H. Then Sulaiman bin A'ayun brought it at a famous place name (As-Saniq) after destroying occurred in the city and its gardens. This forced some of its inhabitants to migrate to Qum, and others to Wasit. This ruin is called (Kharaab Kufah) which means (the ruination of Kufah). 
ـ In the fourth century of Hijra, the event of Al-Fasiq (means the Sinner) Marrat bin Qais one of the Khawarij occurred, when he intended to exhume Imam Ali's tomb (peace be upon him). Likewise a destroying event of Najaf fence and running away of the inhabitants from the city. 
- In year 448 A.H. / 1056 A.D. Najaf became a Center for Religious Studies during the period of Al-Buwaihi State, and prospered when Shaikh Abu Jafar At-Tusi immigrated to the city after he was oppressed in Baghdad and his books were burnt. Then it became a center for Seminary students coming from all parts of the world. 
ـ Al-Musha'asha'ee incident occurred in the year 508 A.H. . who was a ruler of Al-Jazaer (in the south part of Iraq) and Al-Basrah. He killed Najaf inhabitants and captured others, he also destroyed two holy shrines of Najaf and Karbala. 
ـ In year 1032 A.H. Rome besieged Najaf during the time of As-Sultan Salim Al-Uthmani. 
ـ In year 1109 A.H. The Al - Furat river overflowed and resulted in sinking of Najaf and its suburbs, then some of the leaders dominated on it and plundered whatever was in the city. 
ـ Various diseases spread in the city during 10th and 11th centuries A.H.. As a result, many inhabitants of the city perished and its constructional movement was stopped. 
ـ In year 1228 A.H. / 1813 A.D. and in the period of Shaikh Jafar Al-Kabir, the author of (Kashful Ghita'a), some incidents took place which led to the appearance of war leaders close to the religious government, then Najaf warriors were divided into two groups known as Az-Zakrat and Ash-Shamrat. 
ـ In the years 1216, 1221 and 1225 A.H. Najaf faced different attacks by the Wahhabis which culminated in killing its residents, demolition and plundering of the holy shrine of Imam Ali (peace be upon him). 
ـ Najaf revolted against the Ottoman Turks in the year 1333 A.H. / 1915 A.D., and deported them from the city in order never to return. 
ـ British entered Najaf city in the year 1335 A.H. /1917 A.D., but the city rose against them and deported them in year 1336 A.H. / 1918 A.D.

 

IMPORTANT PERSONALITIES: 
Najaf is the land of the Prophets, Righteous men and scholars. Of the prophets who lived in this city are Adam, Noah, and Saleh (peace be upon all of them). 
The other important personalities of the city are as follows: 
1 - Khabab bin Al-Arat (died in year 37 A.H.). 
2 ـ Sahl bin Hunaif (died in year 38 A.H.). 
3 ـ Kharim bin Al-Akhram (died in year 41 A.H.). 
4 - Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari (died in year 42 A.H.). 
5 - Al-Ash'ath bin Qais (died in year 42 A.H.). 
6 ـ Al-Maghirah bin Shu'bah (died in year 50 A.H.). 
8 ـ Hani bin Ur'wah (died in year 61 A.H.). 
9 ـ Maitham At-Tammar (died in year 61 A.H.). 
10 ـ Abdullah bin Yaqtar (died in year 61 A.H.). 
11 ـ Zaid bin Al-Arqam (died in year 68 A.H.). 
12 ـ Udai bin Hatam At-Taee (died in year 68 A.H.). 
13 ـ Jabir bin Samrah (died in year 74 A.H.). 
14 ـ Kumail bin Ziyad (died in year 82 A.H.). 
15 ـ Abdullah bin Awf (died in year 81 A.H.). 
16 ـ Shaikh At-Tusi (died in year 460 A.H.). 
17 ـ Sayyid Radhiyu Din Ali bin Tawus (died in year 664 A.H.). 
18 ـ Jamalul Din bin Tawus (died in year 673 A.H.). 
19 ـ Al-Allamah Al-Hilli (died in year 726 A.H.). 
20 ـ Al-Muqaddas Al-Ardabili (died in year 990 A.H.). 
21 ـ Shaikh Fakhrul Din At-Turaihi (died in year 1087 A.H.). 
22 ـ Shaikh Ahmed Al-Jazairi (died in year 1151 A.H.). 
23 ـ Sayyid Mohammed Mahdi Bahrul Ulum (died in year 1212 A.H.). 
24 ـ Sayyid Abdullah bin Shabar (died in year 1242 A.H.). 
25 ـ Shaikh Ahmed An-Naraqi (died in year 1245 A.H.). 
26 ـ Shaikh Murtadha Al-Ansari (died in year 1281 A.H.). 
27 ـ Shaikh Razi bin Shaikh Mohammed An-Najafi (died in year 1290 A.H.). 
28 ـ Sayyid Mahdi Al-Qazwini (died in year 1300 A.H.). 
29 ـ Sayyid Mohammed Hasan Ash-Shirazi (died in year 1312 A.H.). 
30 ـ Al-Haj Husain Al-Khalili (died in year 1326 A.H.). 
31 ـ Sayyid Mohammed Saeed Al-Habubi (died in year 1333 A.H.). 
32 ـ Al-Allamah Sayyid Ali Ad-Damad (died in year 1336 A.H.). 
33 ـ Sayyid Mohammed Ridha Al-Astar Abadi (died in year 1346 A.H.). 
34 ـ Al-Allamah Mohammed Jawad Al-Balaaghi (died in year 1354 A.H.). 
35 ـ Shaikh An-Naeeni (died in year 1355 A.H.). 
36 - Shaikh Dhiya'u deen Al-Iraqi (died in year 1361 A.H.). 
37 - Sayyid Abul Hasan Al-Isfahani (died in the year 1365 A.H. ). 
38 ـ Sayyid Mohammed Kazim Al-Yazdi (died in year 1370 A.H.). 
39 ـ Shaikh Mohammed Husain bin Shaikh Ali Kashif Al-Ghita'a (died in year 1373 A.H.). 
40 ـ Sayyid Muhsin Al-Hakim (died in year 1375 A.H.). 
41 ـ Sayyid Abul Qasim Al-Khuee (died in year 1413 A.H.). 
42 ـ Sayyid Abdul A'alaa As-Sabzawari (died in year 1414 A.H.). 

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THE REFERENCES:
1 ـ Mawsuatul Najaf Al-Ashraf / Ta'lif Jafar Ad-Dajili / Tab'atul Ula, sanat 1993 A.D. Beirut. 
1 ـ Encyclopedia of the Holy Najaf / Authored by Jafar Ad-Dajili / First Edition / Year 1993 A.D Beirut.
2 ـ Thawratun Najaf / Ta'lif Hasan Al-Asadi /Tab'atul ula / Sanat 1975 A.D. Baghdad.
2 ـ Najaf Revolution / Authored by Hasan Al-Asadi / First Edition / Year 1975 A.D. Baghdad. 
3 ـ Madhi Najaf Wa Haadhiriha, Mujalladul Ula / Tab'atul Ula / Sanat 1986 A.D. 
3 ـ Najaf at Past and Present, Volume One / First Edition / Year 1986 A.D.
4 ـ Mawsuatul Atabat Al-Muqaddasah / Qismun Najaf / Mujalladul ula / Tab'atul thani / Sanat 1987 A.D. Beirut.
4 ـ Encyclopedia of Holy Shrines / Najaf Section / Volume One / 7th Edition / Year 1987 A.D. Beirut.